An off-grid solar system is the alternative to one that is grid-tied. To ensure access to electricity at all times, off-grid solar systems require battery storage and a backup generator (if you live off-the-grid). On top of this, a battery bank typically needs to be replaced after 10 years. Batteries are complicated, expensive and decrease overall system efficiency.
Following are the equipment for Off-Grid Solar Systems -
Solar Charge Controller - Solar charge controllers are also known as charge regulators or just battery regulators. Solar battery chargers limit the rate of current being delivered to the battery bank and protect the batteries from overcharging.
Battery Bank - Without a battery bank (or a generator) it’ll be lights out by sunset. A battery bank is essentially a group of batteries wired together.
DC Disconnect Switch - AC and DC safety disconnects are required for all solar systems. For off-grid solar systems, one additional DC disconnect is installed between the battery bank and the off-grid inverter. It is used to switch off the current flowing between these components. This is important for maintenance, troubleshooting and protection against electrical fires.
Off-Grid Inverter - There`s no need for an inverter if you`re only setting up solar panels for your boat, your RV, or something else that runs on DC current. You will need an inverter to convert DC to AC for all other electrical appliances.
Backup Generator - It takes a lot of money and big batteries to prepare for several consecutive days without the sun shining (or access to the grid). This is where backup generators come in.
Backup generators typically output AC, which can be sent through the inverter for direct use, or it can be converted into DC for battery storage.